– 400 C.E.
Ancient Cultures

Judgement in the Presence of Osiris,
Hunefer's Book of the Dead


Hunefer's Judgement in the presence of Osiris, Book of the Dead, 19th Dynasty, New Kingdom, c. 1275 B.C.E., papyrus, Thebes, Egypt (British Museum). Erratum: near the end of the video we say that Nephthys and Anubis are siblings, this is not correct.

Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker

Hunefer's Judgement in the presence of Osiris, Book of the Dead, 19th Dynasty, New Kingdom, c. 1275 B.C.E., papyrus, Thebes, Egypt (British Museum)

Figures represented in order of appearence (left to right):

  • Hunefer (deceased scribe)
  • Anubis (jackal-headed god associated with mummification, burial and the afterlife, he is the son of Nephthys)
  • Ma'at (goddess of order and ethical judgement. She wears a feather associated with truth and is here shown at the top of the scales)
  • Ammit or Ammut (demon represented as part crocodile, lion and hippopotamus. Devoured hearts that failed the test of Ma'at)
  • Thoth (here represented as an Ibis-headed god recording the fate of the deceased, in this case Hunefer)
  • Horus (falcon-headed god/also eye of Horus, associated with the king and son of Osiris)
  • Horus's 4 sons Imsety, Duamutef, Hapi, Qebehsenuef (associated with the 4 cardinal points, protection of vital organs of the deceased)
  • Osiris (enthroned wearing Atef crown; he is associated with death and is one of the most powerful gods in the Egyptian pantheon)
  • Isis (goddess protector of mummys and Osiris and in some instances, the mother of Horus and sister of Nephthys)
  • Nephthys (goddess who, along with her sister Isis, protects mummys and Osiris, mother of Anubis, sister and wife of Seth)
Conservators from the British Museum reline an ancient Egyptian papyrus Book of the Dead

by permission of the British Museum

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